Camanche Reservoir, CA
The East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) supplies about 1.5 Million residents in the East Bay of San Francisco with drinking water.
The Camanche Reservoir was built in 1964 on the Lower Mokulemne River. The reservoir has a maximum volume of 417,000 acre feet and is up to 135 ft deep. It is used for flood control, downstream flow regulation, hydroelectric power generation, and recreation.
A fish hatchery was built at the bottom of the dam to mitigate the loss of spawning habitat for Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout. In 1986-1990 over 300,000 salmonids died in the hatchery due to anoxic water released from the reservoir. This prompted the District to investigate technologies to prevent future fish kills.
Options to Prevent Future Fish Kills
After thousands of fish were killed in the downstream hatchery, the District investigated preventative solutions, such as Hypolimnetic Oxygenation, multi-level intake structures or diversions from another reservoir. The goals were to prevent future fish kills and the formation of H2S in the reservoir’s sediment. Fishery needs, such as maintaining a cold water fish habitat, had to be balanced with the District’s water supply needs. The installation of a Speece Cone, as recommended by Alex Horne, Ph.D. of the University of California, Berkeley and Bill Faisst, Ph.D. of Brown & Caldwell Engineers, for Hypolimnetic Oxygenation in 1993 was the most cost-effective and feasible solution.
Innovative and highly effective, SuperOxygenation technology is an eco friendly alternative to traditional chemical treatments for water and wastewater. Focusing on odor and corrosion prevention, ECO2 has helped cities across the country solve their needs in both municipal and industrial applications.
Positive Effects on Water Quality
The advantage of the Speece Cone is that it adds already dissolved oxygen to the reservoir’s hypolimnion. The liquid to liquid phase mixing allows for a horizontal distribution of oxygenated water across the sediment with minimal turbulence. The final plume of oxygenated water in Camanche Reservoir extended up to 3 miles into the reservoir.
Nutrient Levels Reduced
Oxygenation successfully suppressed the internal nutrient loads. All nutrient levels decreased dramatically after start-up of the Oxygenation System. The TN:TP ratio fell from 6 to 1.6.” Fewer nutrients resulted in reduced algae growth. Chlorophyll A declined by 88% overall and Secchi Depths increased. Large blooms of blue-green algae declined by over 93% in the first five years and 99% thereafter.
Become a leader in water treatment.
ECO2 SuperOxygenation systems for water and wastewater treatment are designed and produced by Eco-Oxygen Technologies, LLC headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana. The technology is the pioneering effort of Dr. Richard Speece, Centennial Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Vanderbilt University.
The ECO2 oxygenation method is a simple process based upon the scientific principle of Henry’s Law. No chemicals and no moving parts other than standard industrial water pumps are used. The result is a robust, reliable, economically competitive and environmentally friendly technology.
In municipal applications, ECO2 technology eliminates hydrogen sulfide odor and corrosion by dissolving pure oxygen in wastewater at high concentrations (50-75 mg/l) which prevents the formation of hydrogen sulfide and the associated “rotten-egg” odor. This approach saves money on alternative chemicals, provides pretreatment and does not increase total dissolved solids. ECO2 engineers are presently focused on wastewater projects in Maine, Indiana, California, Kentucky and Texas.